Potato is a temperate region crop and requires cool climate. But it is adapted to wide range of climatic conditions.It grows well in temperature between 150C to 250C. High day temperature 20-250C is good for vegetative growth while 15-200C night temperature is good for tuber formation. Tuber formation stop totally when temperature goes above 300C.
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Altitude: 1500-3000m above sea level
Rainfall: above 700mm annually
Soils: well drained, fertile, medium-loam
Early ploughing and harrowing to remove all weeds is recommended. Apply 10-20 tons of well decomposed organic manure hectare
Should be done during the onset of trains. Plant the crop on ridges, as a root crop this enhance good tuber formation. Plant the seeds 10cm deep at a spacing of 75cm by 25cm or 75cm by 30cm. Planting materials should be certified and should be sprouted before planting. Ensure the tubers have 4-5 sprouts at the time of planting. Seed rate is roughly 40 bags of 50kgs/ha equivalent to 2000kg per hectare.
First weeding done after emergence, second weeding and earthing up before stolons form. Herbicide such as paraquat may be used as pre-emergence spray.
Four-year rotation using beans and cereals. Avoid alternating the crop with solanaceaeother family members
Potato aphids: practice field hygiene, crop rotation, spray appropriate insecticide
Potato tuber moth: deep planting, carry out ridging twice during the growing period, clean planting materials, spray insecticides such as fenitrothion
Nematodes: practice crop rotation, filed hygiene, furrow application of nematicides during planting egnemacur
Cut worms: spray appropriate insecticide egconfidor
Late blight: plant resistant varieties, spray preventive fungicides such as sancozeb or greenzebfollowed by systemic fungicide such as ridomil
Early blight: plant resistant varieties, spray with ridomil
Bacterial wilt: 3 years crop rotation, use certified seeds, destroy diseased plants, avoid using infected plant materials in compost heaps
Soft rot: harvest when tuber skins are hard(timely harvesting), avoid bruising tubers during harvesting, harvest in dry weather to allow rapid drying and healing of wounds.
Potatao virus: plant clean materials(certified), destroy affected plants with their tubers, practice field sanitation.
Done 3-5 months after planting depending on variety and altitude. For the biggest and best potatoes, harvest only after the plant’s foliage has died back. Cut browning foliage to the ground and wait 10–14 days before harvesting to allow the potatoes to develop a thick enough skin. Don’t wait too long, though, or the potatoes may rot. Dig potatoes on a dry day. Dig up gently, being careful not to puncture the tubers. Yield range from 30-40 tons or 250 of 110kgs per hectare.
Ware potatoes: Above 55mm
Seed potato: 25-55mm
Chats: less than 25mm
Store in well ventilated house made of mud or brick walls and thatched roofs. If roofs are of tin, an insulating ceiling shoud be fitted. Storage temperatures of 5-100C will extend potato shelf life 2-3 months. Sprickle sprout suppressants such as 1% propham over well cured tubers.