Rice production involves various steps including; seedling production, sowing, seedbed preparation, main land preparation, transplanting, main field water management, weeding, pest and disease control, husbandly and harvesting ,threshing, winnowing, drying, storage. About 95% rice production in Kenya is grown under irrigation in paddy schemes managed by theNational Irrigation Board (NIB).
Irrigated varieties: Sindano, Basmat 370, Basmat 217, BW 196, BG-90-2, BR 51-74-6 and IR 2793-80-1, ITA 310
Low land rainfed: Ci Cong Ai, WABIS-675, Jasmine-85, TGR-78
Rain-fed upland: NARIKA 1, NARIKA 4, NARIKA 10, NARIKA 11, TRG-94, Nam Roo, Deurado precoce, WAB 181-18
Altitude: 0-1700m above sea level
Rainfall: 800-2000mm annually
Soils: Sandy loam to clay, PH ranging from 4.5-7.0
Should be done at the onset of rains for rain-fed rice, direct seeding is done in this case. For irrigated rice, raise seedlings on nursery and transplant 3-4 weeks after sowing depending on the variety. Spacing for rain fed rice range between 23-35cm by drill (seed rate 50kg per hectare), for irrigated rice is 15cm-20cm by 20cm (seed rate 50-54kg per hectare).
NB: Flood the field 15 days after tillage, before transplanting.
Nursery: Apply 160kg SA/DAP per hectare.
Irrigated rice: Use basal application method, 100kg DAP per hectare during planting, top dress 12-14 days after transplanting with 100kg CAN per hectare for black cotton soil, 100-180kg SA depending on soil conditions.
Rain-fed rice: Use basal application method, 100kg DAP per hectare during planting and 90kg CAN per hectare during top-dressing.
For rain fed rice carry out weeding three times, first weeding done 2-3 weeks after germination, second prior to topdressing and third one before panicle set. Use herbicides such as Satonil or Karachi.
White rice borer: Practice good field hygiene, plant resistant varieties, use systemic insecticides such as confidor.
Birds: Quelea quelea bird, use bird scaring devices, monitor regularly for breeding sites, report to agricultural office for assistance.
Rice stem borer:Plant resistant varieties, practice good field hygiene, use systemic insecticides eg confidor.
Stalk eyed fly: Use systemic insecticides eg confidor.
Rice leaf hoppers: Use insecticides such as endosulfan.
NB: Chemical control measure should be adopted when pest damage is severe!
Blast: Plant resistant varieties, proper plant spacing, avoid excessive nitrogen application in the field, practice good field hygiene.
Sheath blight: Plant resistant varieties, use suitable broad-based fungicide eg ridomil.
Rice yellow mottle virus: Plant resistant varieties, practice good field hygiene, control insect vectors.
Sheath rot: Plant resistant varieties, use fungicides eg ridomil.
Done 80-180 days after sowing depending on varieties and location. Dry the rice to 14% moisture content. Yield range from 4.5 to 10 tons per hectare for irrigated rice and 3-7 tons per hectare for rain-fed rice.