Mushrooms can grow in almost every part of our country provided there is shelter, reliable water supply and stable temperature in the range of 15 to 25 degrees.
Step 1: Getting Started
Of course, you need some land to plant your mushroom crop. A 1/8 th acre piece of land would be adequate to set up a large farm that can produce as much as 2 tonnes of mushrooms after every 2 months (using shelf-frame method).
Step 2: Build a Simple House
Once you have secured a good piece of land, you will need to build a simple mud-house and a few wooden shelves to utilize the vertical space available. Your local carpenter can help you with this and you can improvise on locally available materials to save on construction cost. (Note: Make sure the house is well aerated to allow proper circulation of air).
Step 3: Look for the substrate
The first and most important supply you will need is the substrate. Substrate is basically the substance on which mushrooms grow. This can be forest soil, wheat straw, bean straw, millet straw or even rice straw. Make sure this is sterilized as the slightest bacterial infection can ruin your entire farm. A bale of wheat straw costs Ksh. 200 and you will need about 20-50 bales to start.
Step 4: Invest In Nylon Bags
You will need small bags to prepare the seedlings and also big bags for the final planting. Small bags like the ones shopkeepers use to package 2KG sugar normally cost about Ksh100 for 200 pieces. Bigger bags can cost as much as Ksh15 per piece and you will require about 1000 of them in a 1/8 th acre farm.
Step 5: Invest In Good Hygiene
As you will discover through farm training courses, good hygiene is important in a mushroom farm. You will therefore need to buy things like hand gloves, methylated spirit and cotton wool. A box full of gloves costs less than Ksh1,000 – same for methylated spirit and cotton wool. Other additional supplies that may be needed include drinking straws (Ksh1,000) and a knapsack sprayer (Ksh5,000 est).
Step 6: Now Get The Seeds
Finally you will require some mushroom seedlings (also known as spawns). The most popular (and easy to market) spawns are called button spawns. You can buy these from KARLO or JKUAT. A Kilogram/lIitle of button spawns costs Ksh 600-1,000. Five Kilograms will be enough to get you started. Other varieties of mushrooms you can plant including: shiitake and oyster.
1.Keep the growing environment clean and sterile always
2.It’s advisable to experiment with a small farm before venturing into a big farm
3.Consult an agriculture extension officer in your area for further advice
4.Seek mentorship from farmers who are already doing this to understand what challenges they face
5.Explore your market options in advance to avoid last minute surprises and disappointments
- Don’t take shortcuts, mushrooms are very delicate crops and you can lose your entire investment if you don’t follow professional advice in handling them
2.Don’t buy seeds (spawns) from cheaper sources, always buy from reputable sellers e.g. JKUAT
3.Don’t forget that cleanliness is at the center of your farm’s productivity (again, and again)
4.Don’t be in a rush, take your time, like in any other business mushrooms take time to establish
5.Don’t stop learning, keep researching and keep enquiring to learn the best practices
How Much To Invest
An 1/8 th farm will require Ksh 230,000 to establish from scratch. However, once the farm-house is constructed and the basic supplies are bought then the cost of operating subsequent farming seasons will drop to about Ksh. 150,000.
How Much To Expect
Button mushrooms take less than 14 weeks (2 months) to mature and an 1/8 th acre farm with 1000 bags platforms can produce as much as 2 tonnes of produce. Each Kilogram goes for an average price of Ksh600 and this can translate to as much as Ksh1.2 Million in sales revenue.
NOTE: The venture require one to attend training and seminars to acquire technical skills to run the business, one can get trained in JKUAT at a cost either as individual or as a group.